— Glossary of Terms —

Glossary of Terms.
    • Abacus
      • The upper member of the capital of a column
    • Actoma
      • The tympanum of a pediment
    • Annulet
      • Horizontal band or fillet encircling a column.
    • Anthemion
      • Classical greek enrichment resembling a honeysuckle flower
    • Aperture
      • An opening in a wall or chimney breast
    • Arabesque
      • Decorative scroll work and other ornament loosely derived from branches, leaves and tendrils
    • Arris
      • The edge on which two surfaces meet, forming an external angle with an eased edge
    • Astragal
      • A semi-circular or convex moulding on column
    • Bead & reel
      • An ornament in greek mouldings showing continuous row of bead-like and spool or reel-like elements
    • Bedmould of cornice
      • The lower and supporting portion of the cornice
    • Bolection
      • A raised and rebated moulding which projects beyond the face of the frame
    • Broken Pediment
      • In which the cornice of the pediment does not entirely enclose the tympanum
    • Bullnose
      • bold projecting convex moulding of semicircular section also known as a torus
    • Capital
      • The upper portion of a column or pilaster
    • Cartouche
      • A tablet in the form of scroll of paper for the reception of an inscription
    • Caryatide
      • Carved, draped, straight, standing female figure supporting on its head an astragal and square abacas used as a substitute for a column and supporting an entablature
    • Cavetto
      • A hollow moulding, the section of which is a quadrant of a circle, or a quarter of an ellipse
    • Chimney piece
      • An ornamental finishing of framework for a fireplace
    • Cinture
      • A fillet that divides shaft of column from the capital and base
    • Console
      • Classical bracket with parallel sides, usually an ogee curve terminating in a volute with greater projection at the top
    • Corbel
      • Architectural projection or bracket like support stepping out from chimneypiece to hold shelf or other weight although can be purely decorative
    • Corona
      • Part of a classical cornice with a broad vertical face above the bedmould. the underside is usually recessed to form a drip which protects the frieze below
    • Crocket
      • Projecting leaves, flowers or bunches of foliage used in gothic architecture to decorate vertical mouldings
    • Cyma recta
      • An undulating moulding which is hollow in the upper part and round in the lower
    • Cyma reversa
      • As above but hollow in the lower part and round in the upper also known as a reverse ogee
    • Demi-lune
      • Is the portion of the surface of a sphere lying between two planes which contain the axis of a sphere
    • Doric capital
      • A simple capital from the oldest and simplest of the three main orders of classical greek architecture
    • Egg & dart
      • An ornament formed from the ovolo molding
    • Entablature
      • The part of an order above the columns including the frieze, architrave and cornice
    • Entasis
      • The subtle convex curved swelling of a column or pilaster in classical architecture showing greater diameter at bottom than top
    • Facette
      • The fillet between the flutes of a column
    • Fascia
      • A band or fillet; used to describe a plain horizontal course
    • Fillet
      • Narrow flat band, used for the separation of one moulding from another
    • Footblock
      • Lower section or base of the column or pilaster that sits directly on the hearth
    • Frieze
      • Horizontal central band of entablature between the architrave and cornice. if curved in section, it is said to be cushioned or pulvinated
    • Guilloche
      • French term for an ornament used in classical architecture formed by two or more intertwining bands
    • Guttae
      • Pendant ornament resembling truncated pyramids, can also be cylindrical - greek doric order. also referred to as drops, nails or trunnels
    • Hawksbeak/ Hawksbill
      • A moulding with a convex top and a concave underside meeting at a point resembling the beak of a bird of prey
    • Hawksbell
      • Ballflower ornament
    • Hippocamp
      • Sea horse with the upper body of a horse and lower of a fish like creature often used in classical decorations
    • Husk
      • Classical ornament in the form of a stylized bell flower, nut shell or wheat ear usually linked together in drops, festoons, garlands or strings
    • Ionic capital
      • The rolled up cushion like form on either side creating distinctive volutes at the top of a jamb
    • Jamb
      • The vertical side of an aperture or the “legs” of a chimneypiece
    • Keystone
      • Wedge shaped key block at the crown of an arch to consolidate a structure
    • Lintel
      • The stone which spans in one piece the top of an aperture
    • List
      • Vertical column between column flutes
    • Margent
      • Ornament of vertical flowers and leaves suspended from a bow, mask, patera, ring or rosette
    • Modillion
      • Projecting bracket fixed under the soffit of cornice regularly spaced
    • Nail-head
      • Late romanesque moulding featuring series of small contigious projecting pyramids like medieval nail-heads
    • Ogee
      • Upright double curve, concave at the top and convex at the bottom as in the cyma recta, the cyma reversa is known as a reverse ogee
    • Pediment
      • Low pitched triangular gable in classical architecture
    • Pilaster
      • Type of Jamb of roman origin. attached to frieze from which it projects only slightly at the front
    • Return
      • Any part of a chimneypiece that turns at an angle usuallly 90 degrees from it’s main face, such as a pilaster or jamb panel. also called a reveal
    • Scotia
      • Hollow concave moulding
    • Soffit
      • Visible underside of an arch, corona or cornice
    • Telamon
      • Straight unbowed male whole figure acting as a column support on his head
    • Term
      • Classical head and bust often with torso merging with the top of a downward tapering pedestal resembling an inverted obelisk
    • Urn
      • Lidded ovaloid vase used especially in neo classical examples
    • Vitruvian scroll
      • Repeated pattern resembling a series of scrolls joined together by a wave-like form, also known as wave-scroll or running dog
    • Volute
      • Spiral scroll on ionic capital also known as helix, resembles a rolled up mattress
    • Zocco, Zocle
      • Socle, plinth or any square support, less in height than breadth, under the mouldings of the bases of pedestals etc

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